Tyrothricin is a polypeptide antibiotic mixture isolated from Bacillus Brevis. It consists of tyrocidines and gramicidins. Tyrothricin acts against bacteria, fungi and some viruses.
Tyrothricin is traded under the brand name Tirotricina, Tyrothricin, Tyrothricine, Tyrothricinum amongst other brands. Many manufacturers and distributors of these medicines are present in most countries around the world.
Gramicidin and tyrocidine are short polypeptides. Their role is to disrupt the cell membranes of some, primarily Gram-positive, bacteria. Tyrothricin is too toxic to be taken internally and therefore only used as a topical antibiotic. It also contains a local anaesthetic which acts to fight infection while numbing the pain. It is commonly used to relieve sore throats.
Tyrothricin is a mixture of antibiotics isolated from Bacillus brevis by Rene Dubos in the late 1930s. It was later discovered by Dubos and Rollin Hotchkiss that it was a mixture of gramicidin and Tyrocidine.
Forms and dose:
Tyrothricin is sold as Topical Ointment, Oral Lozenge, and Buccal Lozenge.
The standard dose for Adult getting Mouth/Throat Local treatment of oropharyngeal infection is 4-10 mg per day and for skin infections, 1/1,000 solution to be applied as directed.
In the treatment of Topical/Cutaneous Skin infections, the Adult has to apply a solution of 1/1000 on the skin lesions.
The price of Tyrothricin:
For a solution of 5ml with 0.1% concentration drops, the consumers in India have to pay around USD 0.30. Whereas in the US, the consumers have to pay USD 300, for a 5mg supply of this medicine.
How does it work?
Tyrothricin is a mix of tyrocidines and gramicidin, which exerts a bactericidal effect. Its actions clear the area of pathogenic bacteria that in turn lets the body heal wounds or damage to the skin. Its structural features containing the β-sheet structure containing both L and D amino acids 3 contribute to the formation of a curved dimer. The dimer focuses on the membrane-water interface on bacterial cells with the relatively hydrophilic backbone facing the external environment. This dimer disrupts the cell membrane producing leakage of cell contents.
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