PYRIDOXINE (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is used to prevent or treat low levels of vitamin B6 in people who do not get enough of the vitamin from their diets. Most people who eat a normal diet do not need extra vitamin B6. However, conditions like alcoholism, liver disease, overactive thyroid, heart failure or medications like isoniazid, cycloserine, hydralazine, penicillamine can cause low levels of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 plays an important role in the body. It is needed to maintain the health of nerves, skin, and red blood cells. Pyridoxine prevents or treats a certain nerve disorder or peripheral neuropathy caused by certain medications like isoniazid. Pyridoxine has also been indicated to treat hereditary disorders like xanthurenic aciduria, hyperoxaluria, homocystinuria.
György and colleagues at the University of Hidenberg discovered it in 1934, isolated it in 1938, and first sold it in 1939. Its widespread use and efficacy has earned it a place on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Pyridoxine is available both as a generic medication and over the counter product under the brand names like Pyridoxol, prydoxine hydrochloride to name a few. However, there are several preparations including supplements, so several manufacturers and suppliers around the world make this medicine.
Forms and Dosage:
To treat Vitamin/Mineral Deficiency, for Isoniazid induced deficiencies, the recommended usual Adult Dose is 100 mg, administered intramuscularly or intravenously, once a day followed by a 30 mg maintenance dose daily.
To clear the Poisoning caused by ingestion of over 10 grams of isoniazid, the patient is given and equal amount of pyridoxine. The initial starting dose is 4 grams, given intravenously followed by 1 gram intramuscularly every 30 minutes.
While being used as Dietary Supplement, the Usual Adult Dose is 10 to 20 mg, injected intramuscularly or intravenously once a day for 3 weeks, this has to be followed up with an oral multivitamin containing 2 to 5 mg pyridoxine daily for several weeks.
The US FDA recommended the following dietary allowance of vitamin B6 for different age groups and gender. For example, 18 year olds need between 1.2-1.3 mg a day, 19-50years old, about 1.3gm a day and 51-70 years old between 1.5 and 1.7 gm a day. Pregnant mothers need 1.9 and lactating mothers need two gms a day.
For treating Seizures, the Usual Adult Dose for Vitamin B6 dependency syndrome is Up to 600 mg, injected intramuscularly or intravenously daily, with a daily intake of 30 mg for life.
While using as Dietary Supplement, the usual pediatric dose to reach an adequate intake of vitamin B6 is 0.1 mg/day for 0 to 6 months old babies and for 7 to 12 months old, it is 0.3 mg/day.
The cost of Pyridoxine:
Pyridoxine is a very inexpensive supplement or medicine. The wholesale cost in the developing world can be as low as US$0.59–3.54 for supply lasting a month. Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.
How does Pyridoxine work?
Pyridoxine actions block natural substances in the body that contribute to nausea, and vomitting. Being vitamin B, It allows the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. It increases the creation of glycine, a nontoxic metabolite and is used in treating ethylene glycol poisoning. The natural dietary sources include fruit, vegetables, and grain. It is also vital for muscle phosphorylase activity associated with glycogen metabolism. Pyridoxine can also help release liver and muscle-stored glycogen and in the synthesis of GABA within the central nervous system.
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