Metronidazole is an antibiotic which is effective against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Anaerobic bacteria can cause disease in the abdomen and pelvis, and metronidazole is used to treat these gastrointestinal infections as well as parasitic infections.
Metronidazole is commonly used as an antibiotic and belongs to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics.
This medication is used for the treatment of confirmed trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. Metronidazole is used to treat infections caused by Bacteroides species, Clostridium infections and Fusobacterium infections.
This drug also used as off label in the treatment of Crohn’s disease, Helicobacter pylori infection and as a prophylactic agent after surgery.
Metronidazole is advised as a prescription product, generic prescription product as well as mixture product. This medication is marketed by manufacturers under the Brand name of Flagyl, Metrogel. It is available in the dosage form of capsule, tablet, gel (topical form), suppository preparation and injectable solution which are available in the dosage strengths of 250 mg, 375 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg, 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL and 500 mg/100 mL.
For the treatment of trichomoniasis, the recommended dose of Metronidazole capsule in adult patients is 375 mg taken orally twice a day for 7 days and with tablet, the one-day regimen is 2 grams of single dose or 1 gram twice given in the same day or 7-day regimen is 250 mg taken orally thrice a day for 7 days.
The recommended dose in acute intestinal amebiasis is 750 mg orally thrice a day for 5-10 days.
For the treatment of Anaerobic bacterial infections, the recommended loading dose for adults in 15 mg/kg infused over one hour with maintenance dose of 7.5 mg/kg infused over one hour for every six hours. The first maintenance dose should be administered six hours following the start of the loading dose.
The recommended storage conditions for Metronidazole is to store below 25° C (77° F) away from light, moisture and heat during storage.
Wholesale Price of Metronidazole
The wholesale price of Metronidazole oral tablet 250 mg is around $ 12.97 for a supply of 20 tablets with per unit cost of $ 0.65 depending up on the pharmacy, the lowest available per unit cost is $ 0.19 for a set of 500 tablets.
The cost for 500 mg/100mL metronidazole intravenous solution is around $ 30 for a supply of 2400 milliliters with per unit cost available for as low as $ 0.01
Metronidazole - Mechanism of Action
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole which exhibits antibacterial action in an anaerobic environment against most of the anaerobic bacteria. Metronidazole penetrates the cell by passive diffusion where its nitro group reduces to nitro radicals by ferredoxin or flavodoxin (intracellular transport protein). As a result of this alteration of metronidazole molecule, the free radicals and the reduced form of metronidazole produces toxic metabolites like acetamide, N-(2-hydroxyethyl) oxamic acid which primarily interact with DNA and inhibits DNA synthesis and finally degradation of DNA leads to death of bacteria.
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