Levofloxacin hemihydrate is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic medication, of the third generation of
this family of antibiotics and a part of the Levofloxacin family of antibiotics. It is used to treat a
number of bacterial infections including acute bacterial sinusitis, pneumonia, H. pylori (in
combination with other medications), urinary tract infections, chronic prostatitis, and some types
of gastroenteritis. Along with other antibiotics it may be used to treat tuberculosis, meningitis, or
pelvic inflammatory disease.
Levofloxacin hemihydrate is sold under the brand names Levaquin, Aleflox, Diolof among
Daiichi Pharmaceutical Company initially developed it for the treatment of bacterial sinusitis
through a process for selectively producing hydrate crystals and approved for medical use in the
The United States in 1996.
Dosage and administration
The ingredient version is supplied as a yellowish-white crystalline powder. Levofloxacin
hemihydrate is sold as tablets in 500mg strength and taken orally. In the treatment of Levaquin
disease, the recommended initial adult dose is 250mg,500mg, or 750mg administered orally
every 24 hours.
Price of Levofloxacin hemihydrate
In the international market, the consumer has to pay a retail price of $112.74 for a supply of 10
tablets of 500mg strength. in the Chinese API market, depending on the grade, purity, and
quality, a kilogram can be bought for a price between USD 35 and USD 50. This price is
cheaper is between USD 150 and USD 200 for the ingredient being exported out of India.
How does it work?
Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which has been found to have potent actions
against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Like all quinolones, it functions by
inhibiting the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, two bacterial types II topoisomerases.
Topoisomerase IV is necessary to separate DNA that has been replicated (doubled) prior to
bacterial cell division. With DNA separation being inhibited, and the process halted, the
bacterium cannot divide further. DNA gyrase, on the other hand, is responsible for supercoiling
the DNA, so that it will fit in the newly formed cells. Both mechanisms amount to killing the
bacterium thus fulfilling its primary role of being a bactericide.
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