Isoflurane is a nonflammable, fluorinated ether with muscle relaxant and general anesthetic activities. Muscle relaxation is ample enough for intra-abdominal operations at normal levels of anesthesia.
Isoflurane is a member of the drug class general anesthetics and is indicated for maintenance of general anesthesia, which usually put a patient to sleep for surgery.
Isoflurane is a stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic that is relatively free from side effects and has an excellent safety record.
This medication comes as a prescription product as well as generic prescription products.
Manufacturers market Isoflurane drug under the Brand name of Forane. Isoflurane comes as an inhalant and liquid which is inhaled through the respiratory route. Isoflurane is supplied in dosage strengths of 100 mL and 250 mL packaged in an amber-colored bottle. Isoflurane 250 mL is also supplied in aluminum bottles.
Premedication should be selected according to the need of the individual patient, considering the fact that secretions are weakly stimulated by this drug. It also results in increase in heart rate. The level of anesthesia may be changed rapidly with isoflurane.
Isoflurane is an intense respiratory depressant, respiration must be regularly monitored when necessary. There is a decrease in blood pressure with induction of anesthesia but returns to standard level with surgical stimulation. Progressive increase in depth of anesthesia give rise to corresponding decrease in blood pressure.
The dosing conditions in adult and children for anesthesia induction and maintenance is to use calibrated vaporizer, induction of 1.5 % - 3 % can produce surgical anesthesia in 7-10 minutes. Induction of isoflurane in oxygen or in combination with oxygen and nitrous oxide mixture may produce breath holding, cough which can be avoided by using barbiturates.
Patients with age group of 65 or older must use isoflurane with care, as chance of having side effects are more.
The approved storage conditions for Isoflurane is to store at a temperature of 15° C - 30° C (59° F -77° F). As Isoflurane does not contain any additives it is stable at room temperature for a more than five years.
Wholesale Price of Isoflurane
In US, the wholesale price of Isoflurane inhalation liquid 100 % is around $ 23 for a supply of 100 milliliters with per unit available for a cost of $ 0.23, while the cost for 250 milliliters Isoflurane inhalation liquid 100 % is around $ 36 with per unit costs as low as $0.14
Isoflurane - Mechanism of Action
Isoflurane induces muscle relaxation and reduces pain sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It exhibits its action by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell to cell coupling which helps reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times.
Isoflurane undergoes minimal transformation and in the post-anesthesia phase, only 0.17% of the isoflurane absorbed can be recovered as urinary metabolites. Isoflurane also exerts a dose-dependent action and decreases renal and hepatic blood flow with no effect on renal or hepatic function.
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