Cloxacillin is a type of Penicillin antibiotic effective in the treatment of several bacterial infections including impetigo, cellulitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, and otitis externa. However, it is not effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Cloxacillin is similar to penicillin, as in they are both semisynthetic. Staphylococci bacteria produce beta-lactamase. Staphylococci’s large R chain does not allow the beta-lactamases to bind. Cloxacillin kills staphylococci thus healing the symptoms. However, compared to other medicines of the same class, it has weaker antibacterial activity and it does not cause any serious toxicity. It is only used for treating bacterial infections and not viral infections.
Cloxacillin is sold under a number of trade names, including Cloxapen, Cloxacap, Tegopen, and Orbenin amongst others. This medicine has worldwide applications and due to its safety record, it is manufactured and sold by several distributors and marketers around the world.
GlaxoSmithKline, then Beecham, first patented Cloxacillin in 1960. It was approved for medical use in 1965. Due to efficacy and uses worldwide in treating a wide range of bacteria safely, it has earned a place on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Forms and Dosage
Cloxacillin is sold as a tablet and injections.
In the treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, the Usual recommended Adult Dose is 250 mg taken orally, every 6 hours. The course will last for 7-14 days, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
In the treatment of Pneumonia, the Usual Adult Dose is 500 mg, taken orally, every 6 hours. This course can last for up to 21 days, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
In the treatment of Skin and Structure Infection, the Usual Adult Dose is 500 mg, taken orally every 6 hours. The course can last for 7 days, or until 3 days after acute inflammation resolves.
The Usual Adult Dose for treatment of Cystitis is 250 mg, taken orally every 6 hours, this course also lasts for 3 to 7 days, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
The Usual Pediatric Dose for Pneumonia for the safety and efficacy in children < 1 year has not been established, but for kids older than 1 year up to 18 years the dose is 50 to 100 mg per kilo of body weight, to be taken orally divided every 6 hours.
The Usual Pediatric Dose for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in kids age 1 year to 18 years is 50 to 100 mg/kg/day orally divided every 6 hours.
The Usual Pediatric Dose for Skin and Structure Infection for kids age 1 to 18 years is 50 to 100 mg per kilogram of body weight, taken orally, divided every 6 hours.
The price of Cloxacillin
In the USA, for a supply of 100 pills of 500mg the consumer has to pay approximately $1.56 per pill or $156 for a supply of 100 pills. Whereas in India, the same supply would cost $0.02 per pill, which is USD2 for the 100 pill supply.
How does Cloxacillin work?
Cloxacillin actions exert bactericidal activity. It binds itself to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall. Cloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis via inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).
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